Database Management Basics

Database management is the system to manage information that is essential to the company’s business operations. It involves storing data, disseminating it to users and applications making edits as needed and monitoring changes to the data and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is one component of a company’s overall informational infrastructure which aids in decision making, corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that organizes data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, called attributes, which provide information about the entities that comprise the data. The most widely used kind of database is a relational model, designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data without the need to modify different sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support various types of databases, by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level addresses cost, scalability and other operational issues including the layout of the physical storage. The external level determines how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a mixture of different external views based on different data models. It could include virtual tables that are computed using generic data to enhance the performance.

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